A Critical Analysis of Business Declarations and Statements from a Human Rights Perspective

Autores/as

  • Nicolás Carrillo-Santarelli Instituto de Derechos Humanos y Empresas de la Universidad de Monterrey (UDEM)
  • Ulf Thoene EICEA, Universidad de La Sabana

Palabras clave:

business and human rights, social responsibility, voluntary standards, effective protection, normative interaction.

Resumen

Recent developments in the business and human rights field demonstrate an eagerness to come up with stronger regulations addressed at corporations in the internal realm, required by international norms. This is seen as conducive to the necessary protection of human dignity, which therefore can be seen as insufficiently achieved at the moment. Given the existence of voluntarily-accepted initiatives on corporate-conduct regulation created by businesses or by third parties which are yet not mandatory, it is necessary to consider whether the previous perception is accurate. The article explores this and identifies that voluntary initiatives may produce positive effects that increase the likelihood of a responsible business conduct from a human rights perspective if certain conditions are met, among others by interacting with other regimes in a multi-level manner. However, it also observes that they are unreliable and in no way replace or eliminate the need of coming with mandatory corporate obligations.

Biografía del autor/a

Nicolás Carrillo-Santarelli, Instituto de Derechos Humanos y Empresas de la Universidad de Monterrey (UDEM)

Investigador asociado del Instituto de Derechos Humanos y Empresas de la Universidad de Monterrey (UDEM) y profesor del programa de Maestría en Derecho Internacional de la Universidad de La Sabana.

Ulf Thoene, EICEA, Universidad de La Sabana

EICEA, Universidad de La Sabana, Bogota, Colombia.

Citas

Strudler, Alan. 2001. “The Power of Expressive Theories of Law.” Maryland Law Review 60: 492-505.

Gatto, Alexandra. 2005. “Corporate Social Responsibility in the External Relations of the EU.” Yearbook of European Law 24: 423-462.

Sen, Amartya. 2004. “Elements of a Theory of Human Rights.” Philosophy and Public Affairs 32: 315-356.

Clapham, Andrew, and Jerbi, Scott. 2001. “Categories of Corporate Complicity in Human Rights Abuses.” Hastings International and Comparative Law Review 24: 339-349.

Clapham, Andrew. 2006. Human Rights Obligations of Non-State Actors. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ramasastry, Anita 2015. “Corporate Social Responsibility Versus Business and Human Rights: Bridging the Gap Between Responsibility and Accountability.” Journal of Human Rights 14: 237-259.

Peters, Anne, Koechlin, Lucy, and Fenner, Gretta. 2009. “Non-state actors as standard setters: framing the issue in an interdisciplinary fashion.” In Non-State Actors as Standard Setters, edited by Anne Peters, 1-32. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Remiro Brotóns, Antonio, et al. 2007. Derecho internacional. Valencia: Tirant Lo Blanch.

Richman, Barak D. 2017. Stateless Commerce: The Diamond Network and the Persistence of Relational Exchange. London: Harvard University Press.

Gilinski, Carola. 2017. “The Ruggie Framework, Business Human Rights Self-Regulation and Tort Law: Increasing Standards through Mutual Impact and Learning.” Nordic Journal of Human Rights 35: 15-34.

Sunstein, Cass R. 1996. “On the Expressive Function of Law.” University of Pennsylvania Law Review 144: 2021-2053.

Coumans, Catherine. 2017. “Do no harm? Mining industry responses to the responsibility to respect human rights.” Canadian Journal of Development Studies/Revue Canadienne d’études du développement 38: 272-290.

Rodríguez Garavito, César A. 2007. “Códigos de conducta y derechos laborales en maquilas de México y Guatemala.” CS 1: 117-156.

Rodríguez Garavito, César. 2017. “Business and Human Rights: Beyond the End of the Beginning.” In Business and Human Rights: Beyond the End of the Beginning, edited by César Rodríguez Garavito, 11-45. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, “Observación general núm. 24 (2017) sobre las obligaciones de los Estados en virtud del Pacto Internacional de Derechos Económicos, Sociales y Culturales en el contexto de las actividades empresariales”, E/C.12/GC/24, 10 August 2017.

Addison, Corban. 2017. A Harvest of Thorns. Nashville: HarperCollins.

Zartner, Dana. 2017. “Internalization of International Law.” In Oxford Research Encyclopedia of International Studies.

Iglesias Márquez, Daniel, and Felipe Pérez, Beatriz. 2015. “Corporate Social Responsibility: The Role of Codes of Conduct in Fostering Environmental Sustainability in Latin America.” DIEM: Dubrovnik International Economic Meeting 2: 113-126.

Capie, David. 2008. “Influencing Armed Groups: Are there Lessons to Be Drawn from Socialization Literature?.” In Exploring Criteria & Conditions for Engaging Armed Non-State Actors to Respect Humanitarian Law & Human Rights Law, edited by Geneva Call, 86-96. Geneva: Geneva Call.

Kolcava, Dennis, Rudolph, Lukas, and Bernauer, Thomas. 2020. “Voluntary business initiatives can reduce public pressure for regulating firm behavior abroad.” Journal of European Public Policy 28: 591-614.

Cassel, Doug. 2019. “Vedanta v. Lungowe Symposium: Beyond Vedanta – Reconciling Tort Law with International Human Rights Norms.” Opinio Juris.

Anderson, Elizabeth S., and Pildes, Richard H. 2000. “Expressive Theories of Law: A General Restatement.” University of Pennsylvania Law Review 148: 1503-1575.

ESCR-Net. “About Corporate Capture”, <https://www.escr-net.org/corporateaccountability/corporatecapture/about>, last visit: 10 June 2019.

Friends of the Earth International. “Corporate capture explained”, <https://www.foei.org/what-we-do/corporate-capture-explained>, last visit: 10 June 2019.

Amer, Estefania. 2015. “The Penalization of Non-Communicating UN Global Compact’s Companies by Investors and Its Implications for This Initiative’s Effectiveness.” Business & Society I-37: 255-291.

FAO. 2017. “Private Codes of Conduct in the Banana Industry”, < http://www.fao.org/3/i6844e/i6844e.pdf>, last visit: April 2021.

Faust, Florian. 2008. “Comparative Law and Economic Analysis of Law.” In The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Law, edited by Matthias Reimann and Reinhard Zimmermann, 837-868. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Brenkert, George G. 2016. “Business Ethics and Human Rights: An Overview.”Business and Human Rights Journal 1: 277-306.

Monbiot, George. 2018. “Advertising and academia are controlling our truths. Didn’t you know?.” The Guardian.

Global Policy Forum et al. 2014. “Corporate Influence on the Business and Human Rights Agenda of the United Nations.” Working Paper.

United Nations. 2011. Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights.

Hongju Koh, Harold. 2005. “Internalization through Socialization.” Duke Law Journal 54: 975-982.

Saúl Ramírez-García, Hugo, and Francisco Díez Spelz, Juan. 2020. “Corporate Social Responsibility and Human Rights: Challenges in a Globalized Context.” In Strategy, Power and CSR: Practices and Challenges in Organizational Management, edited by Santiago García-Álvarez and Connie Atristain-Suárez, 311-127. Bingley: Emerald Insight.

Human Rights Council. 2010. “Informe del Representatnte Especial del Secretario General para la cuestión de los derechos humanos y las empresas transnacionales y otras empresas, John Ruggie. Empresa y derechos humanos: nuevas medidas para la puesta en práctica del marco “proteger, respetar y remediar””, A/HRC/14/27.

Human Rights Council. 2008. “Proteger, respetar y remediar: un marco para las actividades empresariales y los derechos humanos. Informe del Representante Especial del Secretario General sobre la cuestión de los derechos humanos y las empresas transnacionales y otras empresas comerciales, John Ruggie”, A/HRC/8/5.

Human Rights Council. 2016. “Improving accountability and access to remedy for victims of business-related human rights abuse”, A/HRC/32/19.

Cantú Rivera, Humberto. 2019. “National Action Plans on Business and Human Rights: Progress or Mirage?” Business and Human Rights Journal 4: 213-237.

ICSID. 2016. Case Nº ARB/07/26, Award, 8 December.

ILO. 2019. “Responsible Business Conduct in Latin America and the Caribbean”, <https://www.ilo.org/americas/programas-y-proyectos/WCMS_735906/lang--en/index.htm>, last visit: April 2021.

Inter-American Commission on Human Rights. 2019. Business and Human Rights: Inter-American Standards, OEA/SER.L/V/II, CIDH/REDESCA/INF.1/19.

International Law Association. 2008. “Non-State Actors Committee, Report: Preliminary issues for the ILA Conference in Rio de Janeiro, August 2008”.

Joreiman, Jeff, Liu, Richie, and Kareklas, Ioannis. 2016. “Images Paired with Concrete Claims Improve Skeptical Consumers’ Responses to Advertising Promoting a Firm’s Good Deeds.” Journal of Marketing Communications 24: 83-102.

Deloach, Jim. 2016. “The Code of Conduct – A Cornerstone for Effective Governance.” Corporate Compliance Insights, <https://www.corporatecomplianceinsights.com/code-conduct-cornerstone-effective-governance/>, last visit: 10 June 2019.

Sherman III, John F. 2019. “Rights-respecting Corporate Culture: Identifying the cultural norms and values that underpin business respect for human rights.” SHIFT, https://shiftproject.org/resource/rights-respecting-corporate-culture-cultural-norms-values-that-underpin-business-respect-for-human-rights/, last visit: 29 April 2021.

Knox, John H. 2008. “Horizontal Human Rights Law.” American Journal of International Law 102: 1-47.

Bonnitcha, Jonathan, and McCorquodale, Robert. 2017. “The Concept of ‘Due Diligence’ in the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights: A Rejoinder to John Gerard Ruggie and John F. Sherman III.” European Journal of International Law 28: 929-933.

Paust, Jordan J. 2004. “The Reality of Private Rights, Duties, and Participation in the International Legal Process.” Michigan Journal of International Law 25: 1229-1249.

Paust, Jordan J. 2002. “Human Rights Responsibilities of Private Corporations.” Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law 35: 801-825.

Fayyad, Khaled. 2018. “The Kimberley Process and the Unfulfilled Promise of a Conflict-Free Diamond Industry.” Seminar on Corporations & International Law, available at <https://sites.duke.edu/corporations/2018/05/07/the-kimberley-process-and-the-unfulfilled-promise-of-a-conflict-free-diamond-industry/>, last visit: 10 June 2019.

Efstathiou, Konstantinos. 2017. “An irrational choice: behavioural economist wins Nobel Prize.” Bruegel.org.

Pérez-Prat Durbán, Luis. 2008. “Actores no estatales en la creación y aplicación del Derecho Internacional.” In La incidencia de la mundialización en la formación y aplicación del Derecho Internacional Público: los actores no estatales: ponencias y estudios, edited by Victoria Abellán Honrubia and Jordi Bonet Pérez, 21-38. Barcelona: Bosch.

Prieto-Carrón, Marina, and Larner, Wendy. 2010. “Gendering Codes of Conduct: Chiquita Bananas and Nicaraguan Women Workers.” In Calculating the Social: Standards and the Reconfiguration of Governing, edited by Vaughan Higgins and Wendy Larner, 38-55. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Prieto-Carrón, Marina. 2006. “Corporate Social Responsibility in Latin America: Chiquita, Women Banana Workers and Structural Inequalities.” Journal of Corporate Citizenship 21: 85-94.

Schwartz, Mark S. 2004. “Effective Corporate Codes of Ethics: Perceptions of Code Users.” Journal of Business Ethics 55: 321-341.

Noortmann, Math, and Ryngaert, Cedric. 2010. “Introduction: Non-State Actors: International Law’s Problematic Case.” in Non-State Actors Dynamics in International Law: From Law-Takers to Law-Makers, edited by Math Noortmann and Cedric Ryngaert, 1-6. Aldershot: Ashgate.

Kaptain, Muel, and Schwartz, Mark S. 2008. “The Effectiveness of Business Codes: A Critical Examination of Existing Studies and the Development of an Integrated Research Model.” Journal of Business Ethics 77: 111-127.

Bernaz, Nadia. 2017. Business and Human Rights: History, law and policy – Bridging the accountability gap. New York: Routledge.

Carrillo-Santarelli, Nicolás. 2018. “A Defence of Direct International Human Rights Obligations of (All) Corporations.” In The Future of Business and Human Rights: Theoretical and Practical Considerations for a UN Treaty, edited by Jernej Letnar Černič and Nicolás Carrillo-Santarelli, 33-61. Cambridge: Intersentia.

Carrillo-Santarelli, Nicolás. 2017. Direct International Human Rights Obligations of Non-State Actors: A Legal and Ethical Necessity. Oisterwikl: Wolf Legal Publishers.

Carrillo-Santarelli, Nicolás, and Arévalo-Narváez, Carlos. 2017. “The Discursive Use and Development of the Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights in Latin America.” International Law: Revista colombiana de derecho internacional 30: 61-117.

Kelly, Paul. 2013. The Politics Book. London: DK Publishing. Kindle.

Mares, Radu. 2010. “Global Corporate Social Responsibility, Human Rights and Law: An Interactive Regulatory Perspective on the Voluntary-Mandatory Dichotomy.” Transnational Legal Theory 1: 221-285.

Cooter, Robert D. 2000. “Three Effects of Social Norms on Law: Expression, Deterrence, and Internalization.” Oregon Law Review 79: 1-23.

Portmann, Roland. 2010. Legal Personality in International Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Goodman, Ryan, and Jinks, Derek. 2009. “Incomplete Internalization and Compliance with Human Rights Law: A Rejoinder to Roda Mushkat.” European Journal of International Law 20: 443-446.

Sethi, S. Prakash, and Schepers, Donald H. 2015. “Developing a framework for critiquing multi-stakeholder codes of conduct.” In Business and the Greater Good: Rethinking Business Ethics in an Age of Crisis, edited by Knut J. Ims and Lars Jacob Tynes Pedersen, 200-239. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Sethi, S. Prakash, and Schepers, Donald H. 2014. “United Nations Global Compact: The Promise—Performance Gap.” Journal of Business Ethics 122: 193-208.

Blackwell, Sara, and Vander Meulen, Nicole. 2016. “Two Roads Converged: The Mutual Complementarity of a Binding Business and Human Rights Treaty and National Action Plans on Business and Human Rights.” Notre Dame Journal of International & Comparative Law 6: 51-76.

Margaretha Jastram, Sarah, and Klingenberg, Jenny. 2018. “Assessing the Outcome Effectiveness of Multi-Stakeholder Initiatives in the Field of Corporate Social Responsibility – The Example of the United Nations Global Compact.” Journal of Cleaner Production 189: 775-784.

Second draft of a legally binding instrument to regulate, in international human rights law, the activities of transnational corporations and other business enterprises, 2020.

SHIFT. 2019. “Fulfilling the State Duty to Protect: A Statement on the Role of Mandatory Measures in a “Smart Mix.”

The Danish Institute for Human Rights. 2020. “Danish companies fail to document their work on human rights”, <https://www.humanrights.dk/news/danish-companies-fail-document-their-work-human-rights>, last visit: September 2020.

The Hague Rules on Business and Human Rights Arbitration. 2019. “Summary of Sounding Board Consultation Round 1 – Results Elements Paper on the Hague Rules on Business and Human Rights Arbitration”, June.

Mattei, Ugo A., Antoniolli, Luisa, and Rossato, Andrea. 2000. “Comparative Law and Economics.” In Encyclopedia of Law and Economics, vol. 1: The History and Methodology of Law and Economics, edited by Boudewijn Bouckaert and Gerrit de Geest, 505-538. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.

United Kingdom Supreme Court. 2019. Vedanta Resources PLC and another (Appellants) v Lungowe and others (Respondents). Judgment. 10 April.

United Nations Global Compact and Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. n.d. “Embedding Human Rights into Business Practice.”

Descargas

Publicado

2021-07-02

Número

Sección

Dossier